Q.) What is Mexikaresistance.com?
A.) Mexikaresistance.com is the logical evolution of the original Mexika Eagle Society website (Mexika.org) which was founded in 1995 by historian and author Kurly Tlapoyawa. The purpose of Mexikaresistance.com is to preserve, maintain and advance the indigenous cultural inheritance of Chicano-Mexicanos through the principles of Mexikayotl. Mexikaresistance.com soundly rejects the paternalistic, racist and oppressive ideologies of Indigenismo, Mestizaje, and La Raza Cosmica.
Q.) What is a Mexikah?
A.) In the year Ze Tekpatl (1064 AD) eight Nawatl speaking groups left the area known as Aztlan and migrated south into the valley of Anawak, seeking to establish a new settlement. They were led by a man named Mexihtli-Witzilopochtli. During this journey, several groups splintered from the migration and broke off, while those who remained committed to the original goal of the journey adopted the name Mexikah (Meh-Shee-Kah.) Literally, the term Mexikah is translated as “the people of Mexihtli.” Those who struggle for Mexikayotl have humbly adopted the term to collectively describe themselves as the modern-day people of Mexihtli-Witzilopochtli. (Just as the followers of Emiliano Zapata refer to themselves as Zapatistas, or the followers of the Magon brothers refer to themselves as Magonistas.) Mexikah is the plural form, while Mexikatl is the singular form.
Q.) What is Mexikayotl?
A.) Translated literally, Mexikayotl means “the essence of being Mexikah” or “all that is Mexikah.” This includes the traditional foods, clothing, music, languages, cultures, cosmology, social organization, philosophies, etc. of those who identify as Mexikah. Mexikayotl is an ideological stance, a social movement and a life philosophy all rolled into one. Mexikayotl also includes the traditional ethics and values of our ancestors which shape how we view the world from an Indigenous perspective. To struggle for Mexikayotl is to struggle for the autonomy and self-determination of Nikan Titlakah / Timazewaltin. Mexikayotl is resistance.
Q.) What do the words Nikan Titlakah & Timazewaltin mean?
A.) After the Spanish invasion, Timazewaltin (Tee-Mah-Seh-Wall-Teen) was employed as a term to describe Indigenous people (“Indians”). In the 1550′s the term Nikan Titlakah was also used for this purpose. However, by the 1600′s, usage of Nikan Titlakah faded and was replaced exclusively by Timazewaltin in written records. Prior to the Spanish invasion, Timazewaltin described the “common people.” Click HERE and HERE for sources. It is the policy of Mexikaresistance.com to use Timazewaltin and the various forms of “Mazewalli” when referring to the indigenous people of this continent. Nimazewal: I am indigenous. Timazewal: You are indigenous. Mazewalli: Indigenous person. Timazewaltin: We are Indigenous people.
Q.) What is Anawak?
A.) Anawak/Anahuac (Ah-Nah-Wak) literally means “Near the water” in Nawatl. It is the combination of two words: Atl (Water) and Nawak (Near the / surrounded by). It was used to describe the areas in central Mexico controlled by the triple alliance of Mexiko-Tenochtitlan, Tlakopan and Texkoko.
Q.) What is Aztlan?
A.) Aztlan (“place of the Heron”) is where several Nawatlakah groups lived before travelling to the valley of Anawak. The exact physical location of Aztlan is the topic of much dispute, with theories placing it anywhere from the four corners area of the southwestern united states to the Mexican state of Nayarit. It is one of the many ancestral lands of our people.
Q.) Why Mexikah as an identity for Xikano-Mexikanos?
A.) Placed into a modern context, a Mexikah is someone who has embraced their Indigenous cultural heritage and has dedicated themselves to the struggle of Mexikayotl. Not all of us can claim to be blood-descendents of the original Mexikah, but we can all certainly embrace the Mexikah philosophy as modern day followers of Mexihtli-Witzilopochtli. To embrace a Mexikah identity is a culturally assertive and proud declaration that you are an Indigenous person who is dedicated to the struggle of Mexikayotl.
Q.) Are You trying to assimilate the Indigenous people of Anawak into a generic “Mexikah” identity?
A.) Absolutely not! The Mexikah identity is meant to unite us in our struggle, not divide us. If someone does not feel comfortable calling themselves Mexikah, but remains dedicated to the struggle for Indigenous liberation, that is fine! Mexikah exists as an identity for those who wish to embrace it, nobody is being forced into it.
Q.) If this is true, then why the emphasis on Mexikah/Nawatlakah history and culture?
A.) Realistically, the Mexikah culture was a living amalgamation of our collective Anawak cultural heritage. By embracing a Mexikah identity, we are connecting ourselves to the greater collective heritage of Anawak. Also, Mexikah/Nawatlakah history and culture is by far the most accessible in terms of readily available information and can therefore be reconstructed and preserved with greater ease. For those of us who do not know which sepecific indigenous pueblo we may come from, the Mexikah identity enables us to embrace our Indigenous heritage in a positive and constructive way, and can serve as a springboard to uncovering our more specific roots.
Q.) What is a Mexikano/Mexicano?
A.) When the white Spaniards invaded these lands, they were unable to correctly pronounce the word “Mexikah.” (There is no “SH” sound in Spanish.) So, when the Spaniards phonetically wrote down the word Mexikah, they used an “X” to represent the unknown sound it produced. (In mathematics, “X” signifies an unknown value). As time passed, the “X” in Mexikah and Mexiko got changed into the Spanish “J” sound we hear today. As in Europe, the Spaniards added the suffix “ano” to the end of Mexikah – as a means of labelling which nation they belonged to. (In Europe, Italians were ItaliANOs, Spaniards were HispANOs, etc.) So, Mexikah (Meh-Shee-Kah) became Mexicano (Meh-Hee-Kah-Noh) a word which has remained with us to this day. To call yourself a Mexican or Mexicano is to use the Spanish mispronunciation of Mexikah.
Q.) What is a Xikano/Chicano?
A.) Xikano/Chicano is a shortend way of saying Mexikano. This word has been in use since at least the 1600′s. A Xikano/Chicano is an Indigenous person of Mexican ethnicity who resides in the so-called “United States.”
Q.) What is Nawatl?
A.) Nawatl (Nahuatl) is one of the many TRUE and ORIGINAL languages of Anawak. Presently, there are 63 LIVING indigenous languages spoken in Mexico (second only to China and India). At its peak, Nawatl was spoken from the four corners region of the United States all the way down to Nicaragua as a language of commerce. Presently, 1.5 MILLION Native Nawatl speakers remain, and Nawatl words make up a large portion of the Xikano-Mexikano Vocabulary. Sadly, many Anawakah people view Spanish as “our” language, and know little about our TRUE heritage and languages. Today, the term Mazewaltlahtolli (language of the people) is used among Nawatl-speaking communities to describe Nawatl.
Q.) What is Mexiko?
A.) After a journey lasting 261 years, the Mexikah finally arrived at their new homeland, fulfilling the journey begun by Mexihtli-Witzilopochtli. They called this new settlement “Mexiko” which means “The place of Mexihtli.” This small settlement grew into the city of Mexiko-Tenochtitlan, which was constructed entirely on top of lake Texkoko.
Q.) What is a Latino?
A.) Latinos are white people from Southern Europe, they include the Roman, Italian, French and Spanish people. Latino is also a word used by Nikantitlakah to describe white Europeans in central and southern Zemanawak.
Q.) What is a Hispano?
A.) Hispano is a Roman word used to describe a white person from Spain. Its stems from the Roman word “Hispania,” which was used by the phoenicians to identify the lands now known as Spain and Portugal.
Q.) What is a Hispanic?
A.) Hispanic is the English translation of Hispano. It is a word utilized by opportunistic, politically driven individuals who hoped to create a false “voting bloc” by lumping together all Spanish speaking people into a generic, artificial ethnic group – which they could then represent, manipulate and use to advance their own eurocentric desires.